Lanzamiento virtual del libro : Autoabastecimiento – llenando los vacíos del suministro público de agua

Este es un blog de la Dra. Sally Sutton, el Dr. John Butterworth y Matthias Saladin. Ofrece una visión general de la presentación virtual del libro “Self-supply – filling the gaps in public water supply provision”, que ocurrió el 25 de marzo.

Figura 1 El suministro de agua in situ se utiliza para muchos fines. Tener un pozo propio suele mejorar la seguridad alimentaria y los ingresos, entre otros beneficios.

El primer libro dedicado al autoabastecimiento

El evento comenzó con una presentación de la autora principal, la Dra. Sally Sutton, en la que se destacaron brevemente cuestiones específicas del libro. Entre otras cosas, mencionó la magnitud del autoabastecimiento, proporcionando una estimación de más de mil millones de personas que beben agua de fuentes a las que han accedido o mejorado ellos mismos (sin incluir a las personas que invierten como grupos/cooperativas). El hecho de que esta cifra sea sólo una estimación aproximada es otro recordatorio de lo mucho que se ha pasado por alto el autoabastecimiento en las últimas décadas, al menos entre los donantes, las ONG internacionales, el mundo académico y la mayoría de las demás partes interesadas en el sector. Después de siglos (o milenios) en los que la gente se ha abastecido de agua por sus propios medios (=autoabastecimiento), éste es el primer libro dedicado al tema, y el evento fue una oportunidad para llamar más la atención sobre él.

Comentarios de expertos del sector del agua 

A continuación, Dr. John Butterworth (IRC) destacó ejemplos de autoabastecimiento en Zimbabue y Etiopía de los que fue testigo de primera mano, y cómo la falta de sistemas de apoyo al autoabastecimiento en muchos lugares limita el alcance y el nivel de servicio que la gente puede alcanzar mediante este mecanismo. A continuación, los autores de los estudios de caso de Tanzania y Escocia hicieron sus aportaciones, así como una serie de comentarios de expertos de todo el mundo. Nos gustaría destacar algunos de los comentarios de estos expertos (las citas de los expertos en inglés han sido traducidas al español por nosotros).

Matt Bower, Jefe del equipo de operaciones del organismo regulador de la calidad del agua potable en Escocia
Azzika Tanko Yussif, Senior Policy Advisor – AMCOW (Consejo de Ministros Africanos del Agua)
Patrick Moriarty, Director General del IRC
Louisa Gosling, Presidenta de la Red de Abastecimiento de Agua en Zonas Rurales (RWSN) y Senior Manager – Responsabilidad y Derechos, WaterAid
Didier Allely, Miembro del equipo GLAAS/OMS

Los comentarios fueron seguidos por una sesión de open mic, en la que los participantes sacaron a relucir cuestiones como el acceso universal, la calidad del agua (y la importancia de la proximidad del agua), y los múltiples fines para los que se utiliza el agua cuando está disponible in situ. El evento concluyó con un gran agradecimiento a todos los participantes y con muchas felicitaciones a los autores por este hito.

Grabación y recursos adicionales

Si no tuviste la oportunidad de seguir el evento completo, o si quieres acceder a recursos adicionales relacionados con el libro, haz clic en los siguientes enlaces (disponible sólo en inglés) :

  • Enlace para descargar (gratuitamente) o comprar el libro (librería Practical Action)
  • Notas informativas sobre el libro (RWSN, 4 u 8 páginas)
  • Grabación del evento de presentación virtual del libro

Los organizadores del evento y los autores del libro agradecen al IRC por permiti que la versión en línea sea de descarga gratuita y que haya sufragado los costes de producción. Las personas interesadas en adquirir el libro al por mayor, o en utilizarlo con fines didácticos, pueden ponerse en contacto con John Butterworth.

Mantener el impulso

Este evento marcó un hito en la historia del Autoabastecimiento. Habiendo sido creado como un Tema de la RWSN hace más de 15 años, ahora observamos que (lentamente) el tema está atrayendo más interés y esperamos que este proceso siga ganando impulso en los próximos meses y años. Más de mil millones de personas dependen del autoabastecimiento como mecanismo principal para acceder al agua, y es evidente que es necesario apoyar a estas personas para que suban la escalera de los niveles de servicio, ya sea mejorando su suministro de agua privada o accediendo al agua por otros mecanismos, incluidas las redes de agua corriente.

Figura 2 Entorno de apoyo al autoabastecimiento

Lancement virtuel du livre : Auto-approvisionnement – combler les lacunes de l’approvisionnement public en eau

Ce blog a été rédigé par la Dre Sally Sutton, le Dr John Butterworth et Matthias Saladin. Il donne un aperçu du lancement virtuel du livre “Self-supply – filling the gaps in public water supply provision”, qui a eu lieu le 25 mars.

Image 1 Les sources d’eau sur place sont utilisées à de nombreuses fins. Avoir son propre puits tend à améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et les revenus, entre autres.

Le premier livre consacré à l’auto-approvisionnement

L’événement a débuté par une présentation de l’auteure principale, la Dre Sally Sutton, qui a donné de brefs coups de projecteur sur certains éléments spécifiques du livre. Elle a notamment évoqué l’ampleur de l’auto-approvisionnement, estimant à plus d’un milliard le nombre de personnes qui boivent de l’eau à partir de sources auxquelles elles ont accédé ou qu’elles ont améliorées elles-mêmes (sans compter les personnes qui investissent en tant que groupes/coopératives). Le fait que ce chiffre ne soit qu’une estimation approximative rappelle à quel point l’auto-approvisionnement a été négligé au cours des dernières décennies, du moins parmi les bailleurs de fonds, les ONGs internationales, le monde universitaire et la plupart des autres acteurs du secteur. Après des siècles (ou des millénaires) de personnes fournissant de l’eau par leurs propres moyens (= auto-approvisionnement), il s’agit du premier livre consacré à ce sujet, et l’événement de lancement du livre était une excellente occasion d’attirer davantage l’attention sur ce sujet.

Commentaires des expert-e-s du secteur de l’eau 

Dr. John Butterworth (IRC) a ensuite mis en évidence des exemples d’auto-approvisionnement au Zimbabwe et en Ethiopie dont il a été le témoin direct, et comment le manque de systèmes de soutien à l’auto-approvisionnement dans de nombreux endroits limite l’étendue et le niveau de service que les gens peuvent atteindre par ce mécanisme. Ont suivi les contributions des auteurs des études de cas en Tanzanie et en Ecosse, et une série de commentaires d’experts du monde entier. Nous aimerions mettre en lumière certains des commentaires de ces experts (les citations des expert-e-s en anglais ont été traduites en français par nos soins).

Matt Bower, Chef d’équipe des opérations à l’organisme de réglementation de la qualité de l’eau potable en Écosse.
Azzika Tanko Yussif, Senior Policy Advisor – AMCOW (Conseil des ministres africains de l’eau)
Patrick Moriarty, Directeur général – IRC
Louisa Gosling, Présidente du Réseau d’approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural (RWSN) et Senior manage – responsabilité et droits, WaterAid.
Didier Allely, Membre de l’équipe GLAAS/OMS

Les commentaires ont été suivis d’une session open mic, où les participants ont soulevé des questions telles que l’accès universel, la qualité de l’eau (et l’importance de la proximité de l’eau), et les multiples usages de l’eau lorsqu’elle est disponible sur place. L’événement s’est conclu par un grand merci à toutes les personnes impliquées et par de nombreuses félicitations aux auteur-e-s pour cette réalisation importante.

Enregistrement et ressources supplémentaires

Si vous n’avez pas eu l’occasion de suivre l’événement dans son intégralité, ou si vous souhaitez accéder à des ressources supplémentaires liées au livre, cliquez sur les liens ci-dessous (disponible en anglais uniquement):

  • Lien pour télécharger (gratuitement) ou acheter le livre (Practical Action bookstore)
  • Briefings sur le livre (RWSN, 4 ou 8 pages)
  • Enregistrement de l’événement de lancement virtuel du livre

Les organisateurs de l’événement et les auteur-e-s du livre tiennent à remercier l’IRC d’avoir rendu la version téléchargeable en ligne gratuite et d’avoir pris en charge les coûts de production. Les personnes intéressées par l’achat en gros du livre, ou par son utilisation à des fins d’enseignement, sont priées de contacter John Butterworth.

Maintenir la dynamique amorcée

Cet événement a marqué un moment fort dans l’histoire de l’auto-approvisionnement. Après avoir été créé en tant que thème au sein de RWSN il y a plus de 15 ans, nous constatons aujourd’hui que le sujet suscite (lentement) de plus en plus d’intérêt et nous nous attendons à ce que ce processus continue à prendre de l’ampleur au cours des prochains mois et années. Plus d’un milliard de personnes dépendent de l’auto-approvisionnement comme principal mécanisme d’accès à l’eau, et il est nécessaire d’aider ces personnes à gravir l’échelle des niveaux de service – que ce soit en améliorant davantage leur source d’eau privée ou en accédant à l’eau par d’autres mécanismes, y compris les réseaux d’eau courante.

Image 2 Environnement favorable à l’auto-approvisionnement

Virtual launch of the book “Self-supply – filling the gaps in public water supply provision”

This is a blog by Dr Sally Sutton, Dr John Butterworth, and Matthias Saladin. It gives an overview of the virtual launch of the book “Self-supply – filling the gaps in public water supply provision”, which took place on March 25.

Figure 1 On-site water sources are used for many purposes.
Having your own well tends to improve food security and income,
among other benefits.

The first book dedicated to self-supply

The event started with a presentation by the main author, Dr. Sally Sutton, shining short spotlights on specific issues of the book. Among others, she mentioned the scale of self-supply, providing an estimate of more than one billion people drinking water from sources they have accessed or upgraded themselves (not including people investing as groups/cooperatives). Many more share these sources as their main drinking water source and for other purposes as well. The fact that this number is only a rough estimate is another reminder on just how much self-supply has been overlooked over the past decades, at least among donors, international NGOs, academia and most other stakeholders in the sector. After centuries (or millennia) of people providing water by their own means (=self-supply), this is the first book dedicated to the subject, and the event was a great opportunity to draw more attention to it.

Comments from experts of the water sector  

Dr. John Butterworth (IRC) then highlighted examples of self-supply in Zimbabwe and Ethiopia he witnessed first-hand, and how the lack of support systems to self-supply in many places limits the extent and service level people can reach through this mechanism. This was followed by inputs from the authors of the case-studies in Tanzania and in Scotland, and by a series of comments from experts from around the world. We would like to highlight some of the comments made by these experts.

Matt Bower, Operations Team Leader at Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland
Azzika Tanko Yussif, Senior Policy Advisor – AMCOW (African Ministers’ Council on Water)
Patrick Moriarty, Chief Executive Officer – IRC
Louisa Gosling, Chair of the Rural Water Supply Network & Senior Manager – Accountability & Rights, WaterAid
Didier Allely, Member of the GLAAS/ WHO team

The comments were followed by an open-mic session, where participants brought up issues such as universal access, water quality (and the importance of proximity of water for that matter), and the multiple purposes water is used when available on premises. The event concluded with a big thank you to everyone involved, and with many congratulations to the authors on this milestone achievement.

Recording and additional resources 

If you did not have the opportunity to follow the full event, or if you would like to access additional resources related to the book, click on the links below:

  • Link to download (for free) or purchase the book (Practical Action bookstore)
  • Briefings on the book (RWSN, 4 or 8 pages)
  • Recording of the virtual launch event of the book

The organizers of the event and the authors of the book would like to thank IRC for making the online version free to download, and to pay for the production costs. People who are interested to purchase the book in bulk, or to use it for teaching purposes, please contact John Butterworth.

Keep up the momentum 

This event marked a highlight in the history of Self-supply. Having been created as a Theme within RWSN more than 15 years ago, we now observe that (slowly) the topic is attracting more interest and we expect that this process will continue to gain momentum over the next months and years. More than one billion people rely on Self-supply as primary mechanism to access water, and there clearly is a need to support these people to climb the ladder of service levels – be it by upgrading their private water source further or by accessing water by other mechanisms, including piped water networks.

Figure 2 Supportive environment for self-supply

Five human rights principles that put people centre stage in water, sanitation and hygiene responses to COVID-19

Posted on WaterAid blog on 1 May 2020 in Equality, inclusion and human rights, re-posted on RWSN blog on 4 May 2020.
Authors: Louisa Gosling, Naomi Carrard, Hannah Neumeyer and Virginia Roaf. 

WaterAid/ James Kiyimba

Empowering and increasing the dignity of marginalised and vulnerable people will help us emerge from the COVID-19 crisis with healthier societies and revitalised opportunities for development and peace. Louisa Gosling, Naomi Carrard, Hannah Neumeyer and Virginia Roaf outline how applying the principles of human rights can save lives now and in the future.

The virus does not discriminate, but its impacts – and our responses – do.

– UN Secretary-General António Guterres.

We are all doing our best to minimise the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. Overwhelmingly, the response across the world has been to reduce transmission through distancing, handwashing and strengthening public health systems. We know water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are central to the COVID-19 response. So how can human rights help?

A human rights lens reveals unexpected opportunities as we respond to the current crisis and plan for the future. Applying the human rights principles – equality and non-discrimination, participation, transparency, accountability and sustainability – deepens WASH responses to COVID-19, helping to both protect everyone now and build more equitable and sustainable societies.

What we do now will shape the post-COVID world and our resilience to future threats, whether climate change or other health crises.

Equality and non-discrimination

The risks COVID-19 presents are not borne equally. We are seeing evidence of this all over the world. Older people, people with health problems, people living in inadequate housing (especially those in dense settlements without access to basic services), homeless people, migrant workers, and those who have to go out to work every day to survive or who are fulfilling a necessary if undervalued role such as care work or street cleaning – all are at higher risk of contracting the virus because they are less able to protect themselves with good hygiene and physical distancing. They are also most severely affected by distancing or lockdown provisions, with eked-out livelihoods vanishing or curtailed.

People who cannot afford to pay their water and sanitation bills risk losing essential services. Independent UN human rights experts have called on governments to prohibit disconnections and to extend continuous access to water for people who don’t already have it. Governments are obliged to ensure access to services. They must intervene so that service providers continue to deliver, and do not face financial challenges in doing so. This is no small feat, given the breadth and diversity of public, private and community water and sanitation services providers, but reinforcing the recognition of these basic services as public services is critical for the realisation of human rights.

Sanitation workers perform vital work and yet are especially exposed to COVID-19. They are often discriminated against, working without protection or dignity. Cleaners, care workers and the many women and children who fetch water for themselves and for others are also at risk of being exposed to the virus.

As with many areas of development, women – despite their central role – are often ignored or marginalised in decisions, so their needs and the specific risks they face are not considered. But many organisations are researching and documenting the widespread gendered implications of the pandemic and response measures. Gender justice should be central in the WASH response, and there is a growing imperative for collaboration with women’s organisations and leaders to find ways to do this.

Human rights to water and sanitation (and other rights) demand that our response to COVID-19 addresses these inequalities. They promote and protect the voices of people who are discriminated against, marginalised and vulnerable, and ensure responses to the virus proactively include them.

Collaboration between WASH actors and organisations representing the rights of marginalised groups – including those focused on disability, age, slum dwellers, prisoners, children or women – brings new understanding and action that ensures inclusive water and sanitation services. Innovative solutions are already emerging from such collaboration, making hygiene messaging and handwashing facilities accessible for people with disabilities, and relevant to diverse populations in challenging settings.WaterAid Papua New Guinea giving loud hailers, inks and papers for printing awareness-raising materials, supporting local health authorities in preparedness for COVID-19.

WaterAid Papua New Guinea

WaterAid Papua New Guinea has provided loud hailers, inks and papers for printing awareness-raising materials, supporting local health authorities in preparedness for COVID-19.

Participation

The AIDS and Ebola epidemics taught the importance of engaging with affected communities. Building trust between government and civil society is critical for suitability, effectiveness and sustainability of responses, to ensure the smooth flow of accurate and helpful information and to avoid indirect or unintended harm.

Physical distancing measures are creating more barriers for many and reducing participation and voice, particularly where participatory processes now rely on the internet. There is a proven gender digital divide, exacerbated by poverty. For example, OECD data indicate that, globally, women are 26% less likely than men are to have a smartphone (70% less likely in South Asia and 34% in Africa).

National coordination mechanisms (such as WASH clusters) should include civil society and organisations representing different sections of the population. This can help governments identify vulnerable people and put in place measures that effectively support those who would otherwise be left behind.

Looking further ahead, making modes of participation and partnership more inclusive could lay foundations for more locally led development beyond the pandemic.

Transparency and access to information

Transparency and access to information are intrinsically linked to participation. If information is not accurate or well-understood by the intended recipients, it has no value. Further, while clear and consistent messaging is important to reinforce behaviour change, it should be tailored to differing contexts. How can people living in informal settlements or remote rural areas respond to ‘wash your hands’ messaging if they don’t have a secure, on-plot supply of water?

To reach the most marginalised people we need to be creative, and to communicate in local languages through a range of channels that are appropriate for the places and people concerned. For example, many countries use radio, such as TanzaniaRwanda and Nepal, where jingles are even broadcast by loud-hailers to communities without FM coverage. Sign language and braille can be used to reach people with hearing or visual impairments.

In Nigeria, local civil society networks and the media are communicating through network members in communities to share information and drive campaigns on improving WASH in healthcare facilities. More ideas can be found in resources such as BBC Media Action’s Guide to community engagement at a distance.

And in South Africa residents in informal settlements are monitoring water and sanitation access during the COVID-19 crisis, sharing the data with city authorities and the media. This initiative has already resulted in improved service delivery and new channels of collaboration with city authorities.A man reads awareness-raising messages through a loud hailer around a community in Bangladesh.WaterAid Bangladesh

A man reads awareness-raising messages through a loud hailer around a community in Bangladesh.

Accountability

Accountability between governments, civil society and development agencies is as critical in a crisis as ever. We are seeing unprecedented funds raised and distributed in response to COVID-19, but how these funds will be used and accounted for is not always clear.

Accountability is essential for minimising corruption and for achieving services that are equitable, sustainable and high quality. This is important both for the emergency procurement and distribution of benefits in the immediate response to COVID-19, and for the long-term sustainability of WASH services.

Unfortunately, accountability mechanisms and relationships in WASH are often weak. Civil society networks must be able to advocate for transparency and accountability in the WASH response to this crisis, to monitor how much of the funding made available for the pandemic is invested with human rights considerations and for the sustainable development of WASH services. There may be more opportunities because the pandemic has raised the profile of WASH, which can create space for WASH actors to contribute to broader accountability initiatives. An example linking WASH to the coalition on peace building and state building in Sierra Leone demonstrates this potential.

Governments are also accountable for the way they are imposing containment measures that limit people’s ability to go out, to work, to fetch water and to use toilets. In many countries we are seeing excessive force used to ensure compliance with lockdown, criminalising people who must leave their home to meet basic needs. This violates human rights and can be detrimental to reducing the spread of the virus if it creates fear and destroys trust between government and communities, as learned from the HIV response. In moments of disaster response the values of open government can come under intense pressure – but can also meaningfully contribute to better outcomes where there is strong cooperation and trust between the authorities and the people.

Sustainability

Poor sustainability and service levels are already a huge barrier to the realisation of people’s rights to water and sanitation, often due to weak systems. These can be strengthened or weakened by the way in which we respond to this pandemic.

Sustainability is a human rights principle – we must not lose progress that has been made. The hope for the post-COVID-19 world – if we use human rights to guide us – is to be in a stronger position than before. This means improved access to water and sanitation for vulnerable and marginalised people; that we more deeply understand how to eliminate inequalities; and that we are more prepared for future health risks and the inevitable impacts of climate change.

How we emerge from COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic will have profound and long-lasting impacts on how we all live, work and relate to each other. We are still barely able to imagine the immensity of economic and social change that will emerge.

Human rights put people centre-stage. Empowering and increasing the dignity of people who are currently marginalised and vulnerable will help us emerge from this crisis with healthier societies and revitalised opportunities for development and peace. Human rights principles must guide our responses and will lead us to better, more inclusive, more sustainable results, protecting and saving lives now, and in the future.

Louisa Gosling is WaterAid’s Senior WASH Manager for Accountability and Rights, Naomi Carrard is Research Director at Institute for Sustainable Futures – University of Technology Sydney, Hannah Neumeyer is Head of Human Rights at WASH United and Virginia Roaf is Senior Advisor at Sanitation and Water for All.

This blog is the result of collaboration involving WaterAid, Sanitation and Water for All, Institute for Sustainable Futures – University of Technology Sydney, WASH United, End Water Poverty, Kewasnet, Rural Water Supply Network, Water Youth Network, Hope Spring Water, Simavi and Water Integrity Network.

Authors: Louisa Gosling, Naomi Carrard, Hannah Neumeyer and Virginia Roaf.